The logic values observed at the device's primary outputs, while applying a test pattern to some device under test (DUT), are called the output of that test pattern.The output of a test pattern, when testing a fault-free device that works exactly as designed, is called the expected output of that test pattern.Such a conservative approach might be appropriate for the software that runs a nuclear reactor or a pacemaker or the brakes in your car.One way to provide a performance guarantee is to introduce randomness, e.g., quicksort and hashing. We use just a few structural primitives (statements, conditionals, loops, nesting, and method calls) to implement algorithms, so very often the order of growth of the cost is one of just a few functions of the problem size numbers.One of the primary reasons to study the order of growth of a program is to help design a faster algorithm to solve the same problem.In order to avoid excessive time spent on debugging, the programmer should be mentally prepared for the effort.The following steps are useful to prepare for debugging.
Running time of a program is less than a certain bound (as a function of the input size), no matter what the input.Integration testing (sometimes called Integration and Testing, abbreviated "I&T") is the phase in software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group.It occurs after unit testing and before validation testing. Testing can be done at all stages of module development: requirements analysis, interface design, algorithm design, implementation, and integration with other modules.In the following, attention will be directed at implementation testing.Implementation testing is not restricted to execution testing.An implementation can also be tested using correctness proofs, code tracing, and peer reviews, as described below.Final module testing aims to demonstrate correctness, whereas testing during debugging is primarily aimed at locating errors.This difference has a significant effect on the choice of testing strategies.but, an "algorithm design" (a/d) is not a language. set of equations, a series of mechanical processes done by hand, an analog piece of equipment, or a digital process and/or processor.One of the most important aspects of algorithm design is creating an algorithm that has an efficient runtime, also known as its Big O.