Infant mortality is higher in boys than girls in most parts of the world.It has been hypothesised that this is due to sex differences in genetic and biological makeup, with boys being biologically weaker and more susceptible to diseases and premature death.In cases of a fraudulently induced contract, fraud may serve as a defense in a civil action for breach of contract or specific performance of contract.Fraud may serve as a basis for a court to invoke its equitable jurisdiction.In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.More data are available for humans than for any other species, and the human sex ratio is more studied than that of any other species, but interpreting these statistics can be difficult.
Fraud itself can be a civil wrong (i.e., a fraud victim may sue the fraud perpetrator to avoid the fraud and/or recover monetary compensation), a criminal wrong (i.e., a fraud perpetrator may be prosecuted and imprisoned by governmental authorities) or it may cause no loss of money, property or legal right but still be an element of another civil or criminal wrong.
In common law jurisdictions, as a civil wrong, fraud is a tort.
While the precise definitions and requirements of proof vary among jurisdictions, the requisite elements of fraud as a tort generally are the intentional misrepresentation or concealment of an important fact upon which the victim is meant to rely, and in fact does rely, to the harm of the victim.
Human sex ratios, either at birth or in the population as a whole, are reported in any of four ways: the ratio of males to females, the ratio of females to males, the proportion of males, or the proportion of females.
If there are 108,000 males and 100,000 females the ratio of males to females is 1.080 and the proportion of males is 51.9%.